Printing using an old printing press


A Chief Ink Maker shows how colour and ink is created from the raw ingredients–powder, varnish, and passion.


Artwork All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.
Bind  Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means. Bindery  Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects. Bleed  Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming. Bond paper  Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
C1S and C2S  Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides. Carbonless Paper  Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing. Coated Paper  Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte. Cutting Die  Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects. CMYK Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors. Coated Paper Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte. Collate  To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested. Crop Marks Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks. Cyan  One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
Die  Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing. Die Cut  To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die. Dots-per-inch  Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch. DPI  Considered as “dots per square inch,” a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors. Dull Finish Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish. Dummy Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Emboss To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool. EPS  Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another. Estimate  Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.
Four-color Process Printing  Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing. Finish  (1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations. Finished Size  Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size. Foil Emboss  To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp. Foil Stamp  Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp. Folder  A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials. Fold Marks  With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges. Format  Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product. For Position Only  Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO. Four-color Process Printing  Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
Gloss  Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish). Gloss Ink  Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration. Graphic Design Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Imprint  To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards. Also called surprint. Inserts Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in). ISBN  A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.
K Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the ‘K’ in CMYK. Kraft Paper  Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
Laminate A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect Letter fold  Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold. Layout  A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired. Linen Finish Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
Match Print  A form of a four-color-process proofing system. Magenta  One of the four process colors. Margin  Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material. Mark-Up  Instructions written usually on a “dummy.” Matte Finish  Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper. Metallic Ink Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal. Metallic Paper  Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal. Mock Up A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Natural Color  Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.
Offset Printing  Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper. Overprint To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint. Over Run  Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
Page One side of a leaf in a publication. Page Count  Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent. Perfect Bind  To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind. Perforating Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal). PMS Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors. Prepress Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation. Press Proof Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof. Press Time  (1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press. Printing  Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate. Process Color (Inks)  The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black. Production Run  Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready. Proof Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Quotation Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Recycled Paper New paper made entirely or in part from old paper. Register  To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register. Register Marks Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks. Resolution Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium. RGB  Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Saddle Stitch To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind. Satin Finish Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper. Scale To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing. Scanner  Electronic device used to scan an image. Score  To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease. Screen Tint  Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone. Separations Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film. Sheetwise Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called work and back. Side stitch To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire. Solid Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint. Soy-based Inks Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment. Specifications Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs. Spiral Bind To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind. Spread (1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty. Stock Order Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
Text Paper Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use ‘text’ to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture. Transparency Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through. Also called chrome, color transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated TX. Trim Size The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Uncoated Paper  Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Value  The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone.
Watermark Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water. Window (1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement of a piece of artwork.
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